She began her musical education in 1877 at the Conservatory of the Russian Imperial Music Society with Iosif Borowka in St. Petersburg. From 1884 she was a student of Anton Rubinstein . She finished her studies on May 31, 1890, playing a diploma concert of Anton Rubinstein's Concerto in D minor. For this performance she was awarded with two pianos. In 1891, she went on a tour of Russia, Germany and Austria, collecting enthusiastic reviews.
In 1918 she settled permanently in Warsaw, where she performed Chopin recitals, took part in symphonic and chamber concerts with violinists and cellists. From 1921 she appeared in Polish Radio, and in 1922 she made her debut in Warsaw, achieving great successes. In the years 1893-1918 she appeared only sporadically. During World War I, she gave charity concerts for Polish families. In the years 1922-1928, she taught at the Warsaw Conservatory and at the Wysocki Music School. Her students were, among others, Tomasz Kiesewetter, Maria Strakacz and Stanisław Chojecki. In 1927, 1932 and 1937 she was a juror at the International Piano Competition Fryderyk Chopin in Warsaw.
Mozart, Schubert, Liszt, Brahms, Franc , Liadov, Rachmaninoff, Scriabin, d'Albert, Clementi, Field and others. She promoted the works of Stanisław Moniuszko, Michał Kleofas Ogiński, Aleksander Zarzycki, Zygmunt Noskowski, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Franciszek Brzezinski, Henryk Melcer, Karol Szymanowski, Juliusz Zarębski and Ludomir Różycki.
She spent the occupation in Warsaw, where she gave about 60 underground concerts. In 1946 she was the star of the first International Chopin Festival in Duszniki-Zdrój. Her last performance took place on July 2, 1947, and it was a Chopin recital on Polish Radio.
Her husband was Jerzy Rabcewicz (died 1930). They got married in 1893 and they had five children.
Zofia Rabcewicz with her husband rests in the family tomb at the Powązki Cemetery in Warsaw (quarter 237-IV-9/10)
By order of President Bolesław Bierut of September 6, 1947, she was posthumously awarded the Commander's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta for outstanding and long-term artistic activity.
Zofia Rabcewicz was the grandmother's sister on the part of the father of the actress Alina Janowska.
Krzysztof Logan Tomaszewski is the grandson of the pianist on the part of Zofia's mother.